Mental health is a state of well-being in which an individual realizes his or her own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and is able to make a contribution to his or her own community. It can also be defined as our cognitive behavioral and emotional well-being it is all about how we feel behave and think. It can also be used in an absence of mental disorder. mental health is determined by a range of socioeconomic biological and environmental factors.
The promotion protection and restoration of mental health can be regarded as a vital concept of individuals and societies throughout the world. Mental health affects our daily life relationship and even physical health.
COMPONENTS OF MENTAL HEALTH
1. BODY REGULATION: This is the ability to keep the organs of the body and the autonomic nervous system example heart rate respiration body temperature e.t.c.
Emotions being as an embodied experience example racing heart and shallow respiration orphan precipitate feelings of panic/anxiety. Feeling of exhaustion or under stimulation often precipitate depression.
2. EMOTIONAL BALANCE: This is the ability to maintain optimal emotional functioning this is knowing how to be emotionally stimulated enough to be aware and engaged in circumstances and relationship
3. RESPONSE FLEXIBILITY: This is the ability to pause before acting or our impulses and we fully change the direction of her actions if do so that it can suite us better than our initial impulse.
4. FEAR MODULATION: Reducing fear people with anxiety and panic disorder especially have a difficult time modulating the brain fear response.
5. INSIGHT: This the ability to reflect on our life experiences in a way that links our past present and future in a coherent cohesive compassionate manner instead helped want to make sense of what the things that have happened to him in the past and things that are happening to them presently.
6. EMPATHY: Empathy is the ability to have insight impact is also the ability to imagine what it is like to be another person and to reflect on their experience in a way that links their past present and future incoherent cohesion.
7. MORALITY: The ability to imagine reason and behave from the perspective of the greater good period include the ability to delay gratification and find ways to get our needs met while understanding and accommodating the needs of others.
10. Personal growth
11. Purpose in life positive
12. Relationship with others
13. Emotional well-being
14. Psychological well-being and social well-being.
CAUSES OF MENTAL ILLNESS.
Although the exact cause of mental illness is still unknown it has been proven by researchers that the combination of these following can cause mental illness.
1. Biological factor
2. Psychological factors
3. Environmental factors.
Biological factors: Abnormal functioning of nerve cells acute or pathways that connect particular brain regions. Nerve cells within these brain circuits communicate through chemical and neural transmitters which include dopamine serotonin adrenaline ATC other biological factors that may be involved in the development of mental illness includes;
1. Genetic Factors: Mental illness sometimes runs in the family people who have a family member with mental illness are likely to develop mental illness susceptibility is passed on in the family through Jene experts believe that mental illness are linked to abnormalities in managing rather than just one or a few
2. Infections: Sitting infections have been linked to Brain damage and development of mental illness called the worsening of its sentence example paediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcus bacteria has been linked to the development of obsessive-compulsive disorders and other mental illness in children.
3. Brain Defect Or Injury: Defect or injury to certain areas of the brain has also been linked to some mental illnesses .
4. Pranatal Damage: Some evidence suggests that a disruption of early fetal brain development of trauma that occurs at the time of birth for example loss of oxygen to the brain may be a factor in the development of certain conditions such as autism spectrum disorders.
5. Substance Abuse: long-term substance abuse in particular has been linked to anxiety depression and paranoia nutrition and exposure to toxins such as lead may play a role in the development of mental illness.
Psychological Factors: Psychological factors that may contribute to mental illness includes;
1. Severe psychological trauma and individual who suffered during childhood such as in motion physical or sexual abuse.
2. Loss of a close person at an early stage of life example parent or guardian
3. When a child is neglected during childhood this can contribute to the individual developing mental illness
4. Poor ability to relate to others.
Environmental Factors: Some circumstances can trigger an illness in a person who is susceptible to mental illness periodista resource includes. This resource includes this stresses includes;
1. Death or divorce
2. A dysfunctional family life.
3. Feeling of inadequacy low self-esteem anxiety anger and loneliness
4. Changing jobs or school.
5. Social or cultural expectation
6. Substance abuse by the person or the person’s parents.
GENERAL CAUSES OF MENTAL ILLNESS/DISORDER
Mental disorder refers to a wide range of conditions that affect mood thinking and behaviour. Most common types of these disorders include depression,mania, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, psychosis, anxiety disorder, hysteria.
The actual cause of mental illness is not known that is idiopathic however the occurrence of mental illness depends on two main factors namely predisposing factors and precipitating factors.
This includes the factors that may increase one’s risk of developing a mental illness predisposing factors also referred to as essential factors are those factors which makes an individual susceptible two specific mental disorder they are regarded as influencing factors they are;
Hereditary Factors: This is a process by which an illness or disorder is inherited from parents. The factors are transmitted through the genes of our individual it is present in chromosome of the cell which decides the physical and mental makeup of an individual. They may be dominant or recessive
Constitutional Factors: Constitution here refers to those aspects of physic personality and intelligence which were more or less rigidly fixed in early childhood or even before birth example premature child, damage to developing foetus birth injury, failure of development, and early environmental experience.
Precipitating Factors: These are the contributory factors to a factor which brings about the disorder period on the other hand we regard those factors and the factors that triggers an attack. It can be physical or psychological.
1. Physical causes: These are organic causes confined to a demonstrable physical disorder arising in or from outside the body and leading to the disturbance of its functions. Some of these factors are;
infections: such as malaria, chickenpox, smallpox, eclampsia,uremia, jaundice,meningitis, encephalitis.
These factors can trigger of predisposed individual. This is due to the infiltration of the brain cells by microorganisms and their toxins which in turn irritates the brain cells.
Chemical Poison: This may be either ingested or by one way or the other get in contact with the green substance. Such as drug poisoning carbon monoxide poisoning.
Intoxicants: this might be a form of tablets liquid powder or is in a very good state example flowers or yeast. They may be taken in by injection or smoking and often cause addiction example alcohol.
Endocrine Factors: The voluntary nervous and endocrine system exact important influence on metabolism or on the integration of mind and body periods all endocrine illnesses in their state of chronicity are likely to result in mental disequilibrium example hyperthyroidism may give rise to anxiety States.
2. Psychological causes: these factors include environmental factors such as;
a. Stress and strain of modern living
b. Increased competition
c. Increased industrialisation wear pollutants from industries and opportunistic wars and outbreak therefore live.
d. Strange / unfamiliar environment.
environmental factors such as;
a. Loss of loved ones and valuable possessions
c. Incapacitating physical injuries.
a. This refers to social economic factors such as unemployment reduced income and poverty.
b. Psychosocial factors example materials and social the privations parental neglect and lack of groups solidarity in the community.
a. This includes unhappy marriage, disappointment in life, or dissatisfaction at work or frustration.
Personal Experience: This refers to childhood experience resulting in emotional maladjustment in later life example parental friction, separation, over protection of a child, rejection of a child, or erratic nature of parents.